Journal UNISCI/Revista UNISCI nº 53 (May/ Mayo 2020) SOUTHEAST ASIA, Some Critical Political and Security Aspects: Terrorism, Migration, Conflict and Peacekeeping, Cooperation, Elections, Citizens Engagement, Arie Kusuma (coordinator), HONG KONG, OPEC+

Antonio Marquina: Editor´s Note/Nota Editorial
Selected Bibliography/Bibliografía Seleccionada

SOUTHEAST ASIA

The Modalities and Roles of Local Governments to Face Terrorism Issues in Indonesia: The...

Gonda Yumitro, Dyah Estu Kurniawati, Saiman, Dion Maulana Prasetya, Shannaz Mutiara Deniar
Abstract: This article examines the role of local governments in facing the threat of terrorism in Indonesia, selecting as a case study the Malang Raya region, which consists of Malang City, Malang Regency, and Batu City. The selection of these three regional governments is interesting because some of the suspected terrorists were arrested and arranged their actions to some other places in Indonesia from this region. By using the concept of securitization, this research finds that the securitization done by the local governments is influenced by internal and external modalities they have for facing terrorism. Therefore, the mapping of the modalities in this research contributes to the local governments gaining more legitimacy in constructing threats and make speech acts work well. It is also the modalities which determine whether the process will be successful or failed. However, there were some obstacles found which encouraged the government to collaborate with other stakeholders, such as civil societies from Pesantren, to face the issues of terrorism in the region.
Keywords: Government, Malang, Modalities, Terrorism, Roles

Modern Migration Pattern in Indonesia: Dilemmas of a Transit Country

Wahyuni Kartikasari
Abstract: The development of world politics has produced conflicts and war in several countries giving rise to a new form of migration, the migration from conflicts and war. This article analyzes the impact of the modern migration in Indonesia. It found that Indonesia is a transit country “invaded” by those migrants who pose serious dilemmas for humanitarian reasons. On the other hand, Indonesia has a limited obligations for dealing with migrants and refugees becasuse it is not part of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and of the following 1967 Protocol, and enconunter some thorny probloems such as some rejection from the local population and finally the limited ability to finance and hospitalize migrant and refugees. The article also explains that for solving the problem, cooperation with other parties, such as International Organizations, and Regional and Bilateral cooperation is needed.
Keywords: Modern Migration Pattern, Refugee, Indonesia’s Migration

Mainstreaming Realism Paradigm in Handling Illegal Immigrants in Malaysia

Surwandono, Fitriani Nengsi, Ali Maksum
Abstract: In the past few decades, the Malaysian government has seen a serious securitization of migration related to the “threat” posed by illegal immigrants. This perception arose due to a flood of illegal immigrants in Malaysia have begun to show a negative impact, given the fact that many of the illegal immigrants are involved in crime and there is a strong perception of threat to Malaysia's national security. This policy is considered effective and it has been proven that the issue of foreign migrants has become a serious discourse in the Malaysian community and government. In this wake, this article explores how the Malaysian government behaves related to securitization in the context of the narrative of the law. This kind of study is still rarely done, although it is critical, since it is basically the real attitude of a country in fighting for its national interests. The article tries to explore of policies implemented by the Malaysian government, especially during Najib Razak administration, in securitizing the issue of illegal immigrants. And it tries to answer the fundamental questions posed by the theory of securitization regarding who the securitization actors are, why, for whom, and what the results are.
Keywords: Content Analysis, Illegal Immigrant, Malaysia, Realism, Security

Comparing the Perceptions of Indonesians and Malaysians toward the China’s Belt and Road Initiative:...

Yasmi Adriansyah, Yin Shi Wu
Abstract: This article examines public perceptions in Indonesia and Malaysia regarding the China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). In order to get a comprehensive picture of the subject matter, the article applies three perspectives, namely International Politics, Economy and Debt Trap, and Public Acceptance. The attachments of Indonesia (under Joko Widodo administration) and Malaysia (under Najib Razak administration) are analyzed, mainly by observing the perceptions of the political elites and opinion polls in these most populous Muslim countries. The findings show that both governments in the two countries had exhibited high inclination toward the BRI. Interestingly, their public show different attitudes and many people are against or at least critical of these policies. It therefore suggests that the pro-BRI policies of the governemnts must be managed with high care in order to balance the different interrests with the popular interests.
Keywords: Belt and Road, debt traps, foreign policy, China, Indonesia, Malaysia

Will Informal Institutions Replace Formal Institutions? The Primacy of Church and “Uma Lisan”...

Sugito, Tulus Warsito, Achmad Nurmandi, Zuly Qodir
Abstract: This article departs from liberal institutionalism theory which argues that security sector reform is an important element to guarantee community security in post-conflict state. Nevertheless, this article discovers that Security Sector Reform run by the United Nations in Timor Lester from 2000-2012 failed to provide effective community security. While the people of Timor Leste have their own perceptions about the meaning of security, religious and cultural institutions, the church and "uma lisan" have provided mainly social protection and mechanisms for conflict resolution. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 key informants and survey to 100 respondents during the field research in Dili, this article suggests that the security role of the church and "uma lisan" has substantially substituted the ineffectiveness of the international and state-led security institutions during the United Nations mission in the country.
Keywords: Security Sector Reform, United Nations, Timor Leste, “uma lisan”, Church, Institutional Substitution.

Indonesia’s Foreign Policy Towards Malaysia in the Post Soeharto Era: A Case Study...

Tulus Warsito, Ali Maksum, Surwandono, Ratih Herningtyas
Abstract: This article seeks to examine Indonesia’s foreign policy with Malaysia in the post-Suharto era especially in the Ambalat disputes. The primary objective of this article is to answer questions why the dispute has not been solved for more than half a century? What has been done by both parties? Why the Ambalat Block is still far from been resolved? What kinds of obstacles have been faced by both parties for taking so long on the negotiation process? This article shows that Indonesia’s concern on Ambalat issue is due to losing Sipadan-Ligitan that finally belongs to Malaysia after the International Court of Justice’s decision in 2002. Interestingly, this study revealed that during Ambalat dispute, both countries were involved in a serious tension with the mobilization of soldiers, warships, and fighter jets, despite that Indonesia and Malaysia are both member countries of ASEAN.
Keywords: Ambalat, Foreign Policy, Dispute, Indonesia, Malaysia

Enhancing Women Contribution in Peace, Conflict Resolution, and Security Agenda: Indonesian Female Peacekeepers in...

Nur Azizah, Ali Maksum, Muhammad Ammar Hidayahtulloh
Abstract: Many scholars have argued that security, peace and conflict are gender neutral. However, studies have shown that women and men experience conflict differently. This article analyses the need to increase women’s role in peace and conflict resolution agenda, particularly based on the experience of the Indonesian Female Peacekeepers in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operation. Feminist theoretical framework and gender analysis were used to look at the impact experienced by men and women during wartime, and women’s role in peace and conflict resolution agenda. It is argued that the change of warfare characteristics from interstate to intrastate conflict, and the new human security framework require the ability of peacekeepers to move closer to communities. In this regard, in line with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, Indonesia has committed to increase its female peacekeepers. The participation of women peacekeepers increases community acceptance, and optimize the capability of the military to fulfil its role in protecting democratic societies.
Keywords: Women, Peace Agenda, Conflict Resolution, Female Peacekeepers, Indonesia

Women Participation as Agent of Citizens Diplomacy through Solo International Performing Art (SIPA)

Setyasih Harini, Tracy Wright Webster
Abstract: Women affiliated with Semarak Candrakirana Art Studio have been carrying out a set of artistic performances, in particular, dance. This art studio was established and developed by women art activists to preserve national culture. One of the activities organised by Semarak Candrakirana to preserve national culture is, among others, the organization of international events. The objective of this research is to explain the women’s participation as agents of citizen diplomacy by introducing Indonesian culture through Solo International Performing Art (SIPA). To analyze the case, the theory of citizen diplomacy and post-feminism is used. The findings showed that the women of Semarak Candrakirana Art Center promote Javanese culture through their international performances. These activities fall into the category of citizens diplomacy, supporting the Indonesian government's diplomatic efforts to strengthen relations with other countries.
Keywords: Women, culture, international event, citizen diplomacy

Bottom-Up Model Analysis of Community Involvement in the Sister City Cooperation for Flood Mitigation...

M. Najeri Al Syahrin, Mahyuni, Apriansyah, Andi Tenri Sompa, Jamaluddin, Asmu’i, Setia Budhi, Dzul Rachman, Hardi Alunaza
Abstract: Sister city cooperation has emphasised the role of the state and local government However, the role of the community is also essential.although has been relegated to a second place. This article aims to apply the model of community involvement in the sister city’s flood prevention cooperation plan in Samarinda city, East of Kalimantan, emphasizing the active citizen participation (citizen diplomacy). The analysis of community involvement with the bottom-up model in sister city cooperation starts with the identification of flooding problems in three samples of Saramarinda urban villages presenting its performance and outcomes. This approach is new in solving the Samarinda flood problem, which so far has tended to be centralized and ineffective.
Keywords:Sister City Cooperation, Flood Problems, Community Involvement, Bottom-up Model.

The Interplay of Incumbency, Political Dynasty and Corruption in Indonesia: Are Political Dynasties the...

Titin Purwaningsih, Bambang Eka Cahya Widodo
Abstract: This article analyzes the interplay of incumbent, political dynasty and corruption in Indonesia from the perspective of good governance. In the last local elections held in Indonesia, three interesting issues came into the limelight: the increasing incumbent power, political dynasty phenomena, and corruption at the local level. Based on the qualitative data analysis, this research shows that the direct local head election provided greater opportunities for incumbents to build their political dynasties to perpetuate their power. Some analysis considered that political dynasties are the cause of corruption. Nevertheless, corruption at the local level is performed by both dynastic and non-dynastic local head. Thus, minimizing corruption is not achieved by the restriction of political dynasties but by strengthening the control of the government. There are five key points in the supervision process to strengthen the control on the government, namely supervision in the political recruitment in the election process, bureaucratic neutrality, transparency and accountability in budgeting, and supervision of local policies to avoid pork barrel policy.
Keywords:Incumbency, Political Dynasty, Corruption, Local Head, Election, Government

Coattail Effect Strategy of Gerindra Party in 2019 Concurrent Election

Ratnawati , Davit Romansa
Abstract: This article tests the coattail effect theory in the general elections (concurrent elections) of Indonesia in 2019. In this election the legislative and presidential elections took place simultaneously. In this context, the article examines the effectiveness of the coattail effect theory for the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya/ Gerindra) in concurrent elections in Pekalongan Regency. Through the coattail effect, Gerindra Party, which proposed Prabowo as a presidential candidate in the presidential lection, hoped to be able to provide positive benefits and increased votes in the legislative election in Pekalongan Regency. The article shows that Gerindra Party was unable to "sell" the figure of Prabowo (General Chairperson of the Gerindra Party) who ran for President in the legislative elections, because the Gerindra Party actually lost 1 (one) seat in Pekalongan Regency DPRD. All this shows that the coattail effect theory did not work well.
Keywords: Coattail effect, Gerindra Party, Concurrent Election.

Citizen Engagement and Effectiveness in Developing Local Governance: The Case of Khon Kaen Province,Thailand

Anchana Saengkaew , Sataporn Roengtam
Abstract: This article explores the mechanisms of formulation and implementation of citizen engagement in Thailand. A province in the Northeast of Thailand was chosen as the case study. Three groups from each local administration organization were purposively selected to be critical informants, firstly, executive officers, both politicians and bureaucrats, secondly, leaders of council community organizations, thirdly, local leaders such as religious leaders, women's leaders, leaders of civil society community organizations and youth organizations. The results showed that citizen engagement could strengthen local governance accountability and responsiveness to citizen-led initiatives.
Keywords: Citizen Engagement, Local Governance, Civic Education, Area-based Administration

Development of Local Governance and Decentralization to empower Citizens in Pakistan: A Historical Analysis

Zain Rafique , Yeni Rosilawati, Shahid Habib
Abstract: Contemporary development discourse confers a protuberant role to decentralization and local governance. To comply with this developmental demand, the Government of Pakistan introduced local governance and decentralization measures to use local governance system as a platform for localizing development and engaging local citizens. This article explores the historical level of the local governance system in Pakistan and the manifold problems that contributed to the absence of an adequate and capable local government system. Empowerment, accountability and transparency mechanisms in local governance systems are not functioning properly and hence the performance and results of the local governance system are very unsatisfactory.
Keywords: Local Government, Pakistan, decentralization, citizen participation

HONG KONG

“Mainlandization” of Hong Kong, A Model of Influence, Resistance and Adjustment

Lukasz Zamecki
Abstract:The aim of this article, based on the author’s field research in Hong Kong and critical analysis of publications, is to conceptualize the process of “mainlandization” of the Hong Kong SAR. “Mainlandization” is understood here as the process of transfer and institutionalization of political visions, policy paradigms, procedures, and norms which originate from the PRC. The model is inspired by various theoretical perspectives (e.g. diffusion of regimes, dependence, political convergence, and processes of “Europeanization”). The article differentiates the “top-down” transfer of values and/or policy standards and the “bottom-up” adjustment. All institutions engaged in intermediation (such as the “one country, two systems” principle) are mentioned, as well as the processes connected to the reaction to PRC activity in Hong Kong and their variations (e.g. accommodation, resistance, resignation). Moreover, the concept of “sinoscepticism” is introduced
Keywords:“Mainlandization”, Hong Kong-China relations, institutionalization, sinification, political influence, asymmetric relations, Special Administrative Region, sovereignty, autonomy

OPEC+

OPEC+ as a new governor in Global Energy Governance

Rafał Ulatowski
Abstract: This article tries to evaluate the roots of the OPEC+ agreement, how it operates, and its prospects for the future. It argues that OPEC+ is a new governor in the Global Energy Governance (GEG) “regime complex”. It grew out of a convergence of the interests and capabilities of OPEC and non-OPEC exporters. The article shows that the emergence of OPEC+ is a consequence of over three decades of competition and occasional cooperation between exporters united in OPEC and those outside the organization. That cooperation was always a consequence of the price war and the demand of OPEC members for cooperation with non-OPEC exporters. Intensive consultations and three agreements on production cuts between both groups of countries in the years 2016-2019 made it possible to begin the institutionalization of cooperation among them. Cooperation within the OPEC+ agreement is non-formalized, based on government-to-government negotiations, and flexible. The signatories to the OPEC + agreement decided to avoid founding any formal IGO, and OPEC + continues to exist as a summit process.
Keywords: OPEC, Global Energy Governance, crude oil, Saudi Arabia, Russia, international cooperation