Journal UNISCI/Revista UNISCI nº 65 (May/ Mayo 2024) SOUTHEAST ASIA, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, GAZA WAR.

Antonio Marquina: Editor´s Note/Nota Editorial
Selected Bibliography/Bibliografía Seleccionada

Southeast Asia

Missed Signals: Analyzing the Failure of Intelligence Cooperation in ASEAN in Preventing the Jolo...

Rachel Kumendong, Ali Abdullah Wibisono
Abstract: This research examines the failure of ASEAN Our Eyes (AOE) to face the 2019 Jolo Cathedral bombings. ASEAN's first intelligence cooperation initiative, known as AOE, was established in 2018 in response to the growing threat of transnational terrorism (ISIS) in the region. The Jolo Cathedral bombing was one of the deadliest suicide bombings in the Philippines, demonstrating the inability of AOE as a counterterrorism mechanism to face the threat of transnational terrorism. The findings of this research shed light on the two major factors - the absence of an agreed standard of procedure and the lack of early warning systems - that contributed to the failure of the AOE. The gaps identified highlight areas for improvement in intelligence cooperation and underscore the need for standardized procedures and robust early warning mechanisms to enhance ASEAN's collective response to transnational terrorist threats.
Keywords: Intelligence cooperation, ASEAN Our Eyes, Jolo Cathedral Bombings, ISIS, counter-terrorism cooperation.

The Management of Women and Children Associated with Foreign Terrorist Fighters upon Their Returns:...

Ardhiana Fitriyanie, Zora A Sukabdi
Abstract This article focuses on the management of women and children associated with FTFs upon their return to Indonesia, particularly from camps in Syria. This research highlights the urgency of preparing a mechanism for the returnees and the proposed alternative solutions, as the camps in Syria are expected to be closed in the near future. In addition, the use of risk assessment tools to identify the level of risk of each individual will determine how the repatriation process, time and individuals to be repatriated within a given period. The results of this research also point to the following as possible solutions (a) the establishment of rehabilitation and deradicalization centers within and outside the country, (b) the preparation of risk assessment and needs mechanisms, (c) the creation of an integrated child adoption system (SAAT) programme, and (d) the establishment of an early warning and early detection system mechanism at the community level.
Keywords: Women, children, foreign terrorist fighters, repatriation, risk assessment.

Identity and Foreign Policy: Comparative Studies of Indonesian and Malaysian Foreign Policies in Relation...

Ali Muhammad, Ilham Agustian Candra, Ahmad Sahide
Abstract: This article compares the foreign policies of Indonesia and Malaysia towards Israel. Through the use of social constructivism, the study examines the extent to which the identity of the state plays a critical role in the foreign policy of both Muslim-majority countries. It argues that Malaysia's anti-Israeli policy and refusal to establish diplomatic relations with Israel is mainly due to its Muslim identity and pressure from Muslim constituencies. In the case of Indonesia, the main factors stem from its national identity, which is strongly anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist, as enshrined in its national constitution. Although Muslim identity is also important in Indonesia, it is not the primary determining factor in the country's foreign policy towards Israel.
Keywords: Foreign Policy, constructivism, identity, Indonesia, Malaysia, Israel.

The Rodrigo Duterte Policy to Bangsamoro in the Southern Philippines

Ali Maksum, Diar Abdi Hindiarto, Reevany Bustami
Abstract:. The restive Bangsamoro minority's struggle for rights is part of the enduring Muslim South - Christian North political conflict in the Philippines. The Philippine government's efforts to negotiate a peace agreement with the Muslim minority have hit deadlocks and mismatches between the goals of the two parties. Specifically, this study used content analysis to examine the Philippine government's strategy during the Rodrigo Duterte era in realizing peace for this protracted conflict with the Bangsamoro minority group. The results showed that Rodrigo Duterte as achieved peace in the Bangsamoro through mediation and negotiation, tools used by the previous government. In addition, Duterte's commitment became more significant by granting regional autonomy rights to Bangsamoro. The critical element enabler of Duterte's strategy was the dual-track negotiations.
Keywords: Duterte, Bangsamoro, Muslim, minority, conflict.

Australia-Indonesia Cooperation in Natural Disasters Management in Indonesia through the AIFDR Program 2009-2015

Nur Azizah, Farhan Nafi’uddin
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to explain Australia's cooperation with Indonesia in managing Indonesian natural disasters through the Australia - Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR) programme during 2009-2015. Australia is one of the countries that actively and sympathetically engage with Indonesia on a range of social and international issues, including disaster management. The establishment of the AIFDR was prompted by the weakness of Indonesia's disaster management system, as evidenced by the establishment of a disaster management legal entity with a coordination line under the President in 2008 after several disasters. This article contains three of the many results of AIFDR cooperation during this period.
Keywords Australia, Indonesia, cooperation, AIFDR, disasters.

Human Rights Issue in Papua: A Systematic Literature Review

M. Syaprin Zahidi, Muhammad Fuad Bin Othman
Abstract:The issue of human rights in Papua has received considerable scholarly attention in recent years. Therefore, this study uses the comprehensive Scopus database to evaluate global trends in publications related to human rights in Papua. Through bibliometric analysis, the study covers the period from 1981 to 2023. The data was visualised and analysed using VOSviewer software. The results showed that international publications on human rights in Papua covered various topics such as Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, indigenous peoples, West Papua, violence, human rights, geopolitics, foreign policy, investigative journalism, indigenous peoples and local communities, collaborative journalism, pregnant women, separatism and malaria. Australia emerged as the leading country of publication, with many authors associated with its institutions. The classification of human rights issues in this study is divided into three dimensions, namely: a) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; b) International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; c) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Keywords: Bibliometric, human rights, issue, Papua, Scopus, trends.

The Potential Rise of Populism among the Indonesian Muslim Middle Class Post Covid-19 Pandemic

M. Hasan Syamsudin, Siti Malaiha Dewi
Abstract:The economic and political insecurity faced by Indonesia's Muslim middle class may create opportunities for the rise of populism in Indonesia. This study aims to examine the potential for populism supported by Indonesia's Muslim middle class in the aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic. The critical political economy approach, specifically the class-based approach, has been used in this study. This article uses qualitative research methodology and draws on literary sources. The findings suggest the likely emergence of populist politics in Indonesia, triggered by the economic instability caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, which severely affected the Muslim middle class. This has been exacerbated by long-standing socio-economic insecurity caused by unfavorable labor policies. Furthermore, the emergence of Indonesian populist politics is reinforced by the political polarization of the last decade. The mobilization of the vulnerable Muslim middle class by a charismatic leader could fuel the potential rise of populist politics in Indonesia.
Keywords: Populism, Muslim middle class; Covid-19 pandemic.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth Implementation: A review of...

Arie Kusuma Paksi, Chalila Raihan Nabilazka, Krisna Silaw
Abstract: From 2018 to 2021, the global landscape was significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Indonesia, which faced the highest number of COVID-19 cases in Asia, demonstrated remarkable resilience in maintaining the Sustainable Development Goal 8 (SDG 8) trajectory amidst these challenging times. This study aims to scrutinise Indonesia's sustained commitment to sustainable development during the global economic downturn. Using a qualitative methodology and a comprehensive literature review, this study uses the Voluntary National Review (VNR) reports as its primary source. It assesses the achievement of SDG 8 based on the process step indicators established by Allen et al. (2017). Despite experiencing a recession for four consecutive quarters, the study finds that Indonesia has successfully met all the established indicators, although there are challenges and areas that require further attention..
Keywords: SDGs, Goal 8, implementation, Indonesia, voluntary national review, sustainable development, economic resilience, COVID-19 pandemic.

Migraciones/Migrations

Falsedades y mitos en los estudios sobre migraciones: consecuencias para las Relaciones Internacionales

José Miguel Bravo, Andrés de Castro García
Resumen: La reproducción de nociones falsas y mitos en los estudios sobre migración disminuye la credibilidad en su conexión con las Relaciones Internacionales y la Seguridad. Para evitar eso, proponemos la utilización del escepticismo creativo como herramienta académica. De esta manera, valoramos el área de estudios sobre migración analizando su desarrollo institucional y la calidad de sus resultados de investigación. Como segundo paso, describimos los seis mitos más persistentes en los estudios sobre migración en las siguientes áreas: en el del Derecho; en el de las Políticas Públicas; en el de la Demografía; en el de la Economía; en el de la cooperación y el desarrollo y, en el de la cultura; por la importancia que para estas investigaciones tienen las distintas etnias y religiones. Concluye el artículo con ejemplos de las implicaciones que el uso de mitos tiene para las relaciones internacionales entre Estados miembros de la Unión Europea.
Palabras Clave: Inmigración, mitos, pseudo ciencia, estudios sobre migraciones, relaciones internacionales

Guerra en Gaza/Gaza War

Los problemas surgidos tras el grave conflicto Israelí-Palestino en Gaza a raíz de los...

Romualdo Bermejo, Natalia Ordóñez
Resumen: Los ataques del 7 de octubre de 2023 por parte de Hamás contra Israel, y las atrocidades cometidas por los milicianos y terroristas de esta organización, pasarán a la historia como un ejemplo de barbarie, por mucho que no todos los Estados los hayan condenado, e incluso tácitamente aprobado. Si para Israel esto ha sido un segundo "Holocausto", para otros Estados y actores se ha ejercido un derecho de "resistencia". Estos ataques han suscitado una dura reacción de Israel y de sus fuerzas armadas sobre la Franja de Gaza, que es criticada por no respetar el Derecho internacional humanitario, dejando de lado el derecho de legítima defensa. En este contexto ha vuelto la idea de la creación de un Estado palestino, ahora con más ímpetu, al estar apoyada por los Estados Unidos, así como por China, Rusia y otros muchos Estados.
Palabras Clave: Ataques del 7 de octubre, conflicto en Gaza, derecho de legítima defensa, Naciones Unidas, Corte Internacional de Justicia, cambio de paradigma, teoría de los dos Estados.