Journal UNISCI/Revista UNISCI Nº 46 (Enero/January 2018) Taiwan´s Foreign and Security Policy, Terrorism, European Security, Post-Conflict in Colombia

Antonio Marquina: Editor´s Note/Nota Editorial
Selected Bibliography/Bibliografía Seleccionada


Looking for a Platform in North America: Taiwan, Mexico, and Cross-Strait Relations

Fabricio A. Fonseca
Abstract.This article compares the approach followed by Mainland China and Taiwan in their economic relations with Mexico. Both sides of the Taiwan Strait have developed an interest in Mexico as an export platform to North America and the Western Hemisphere. The Mexican influence over Central America is also valued by both Beijing and Taipei. However, due to their disparities in economic and political development, the authorities and businessmen in the mainland and Taiwan have chosen different paths to conduct their interactions with Mexico. On the other hand, the deep economic integration between China and Taiwan, particularly the important investments made by Taiwanese firms in the mainland during the past three decades, have had a considerable impact on their trade with Mexico. The latter’s trade deficit with the PRC cannot be explained without the role played by enterprises from Taiwan, who continuously seek to remain competitive internationally.
Keywords:Taiwan, Mainland China, Mexico, trade, investment, Taiwan companies, globalization, NAFTA.

Enhancing EU-Taiwan Economic Cooperation Agreement

Chung-hung Cho
Abstract:The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs) with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA) with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EU-Taiwan considering economic and non-economic factors.
Keywords:EU trade policy, Inter-regionalism, Taiwan-EU Relations, EU-Taiwan Bilateral Investment Agreement

Challenges for the Republic of China: Diplomatic Relations within Latin America after the Regime...

Elisa Hsiu-chi Wang
Abstract:Due to the policy of “diplomatic truce” during the presidency of Ma Ying-Jeou, and the good will of mainland China, from 2008 to 2016, generally speaking, the number of ROC’s diplomatic allies remained stable, except in November 2013, when Gambia cut its diplomatic relations with Taiwan. However, since President Tsai Ing-wen took office in May 20, 2016, some changes are expected in cross-Strait relations between Mainland China and Taiwan, given the reluctance of President Tsai to express her support to the 1992 Consensus, and the previous reactions of Mainland China. Nowadays, among the 20 ROC diplomatic allies, 11 are located in Latin America. This article tries to respond to the following questions: Is it possible to go back to the bilateral diplomatic competition for recognition by different ally countries, like that maintained during the governments of Lee Teng-hui and Chen Sui-bian? Will Mainland China intend to seize more countries that maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan in order to press Tsai for closer cross-Strait relations? Will the Taiwan´ diplomatic allies in Latin America turn to Mainland China, accepting its offers and incentives?
Keywords:Taiwan, Mainland China, cross-Strait relations: ROC; Latin America; diplomatic competition.

Taiwan’s New Southbound Policy: Background, Objectives, Framework and Limits

Kwei-Bo Huang
Abstract:This article begins with a historical review of the rationale of Taiwan’s attempts to engage Southeast Asia since the 1990s. The rapid economic growth of South and/or Southeast Asia, Taiwan’s desire for greater regional participation, and Taiwan’s relations with mainland China are the three most important factors leading to such attempts. Then, based largely on official documents, this article introduces the objectives and framework of the New Southbound Policy (NSP) of May 2016 whose ultimate goal is to build up a sense of community between Taiwan and South and Southeast Asia in particular. Recognizing the necessity of the NSP, if implemented under a bigger context of Taiwan’s strategic development, this article holds a pessimistic view about this policy because of the funding issue, the lack of strong inter-agency coordination, and the recent waning cross-Taiwan Strait ties that have triggered mainland China’s preventive counter-measures and greater concern of the parties targeted by the NSP.
Keywords:Taiwan, China, South Asia, Southeast Asia, New Southbound Policy, economic cooperation, Tsai Ing-wen

Sitting Outside the Network: Reassuring the Stability of the Taiwan Strait under the Tump...

Ping-Kuei Chen
Abstract:The US security policy toward East Asia since Obama administration’s policy of “Pivot” had transformed its security partnership with the East Asia allies. The US moved away from the hierarchical relationship where it maintained close bilateral cooperation with each country and moved toward an interconnected security network that requires a substantive contribution from allies. Though this security network is not a collective defense system, the US expected its allies, Japan in particular, to expand their roles on regional security. Cross-alliance cooperation is expected be more frequent. Taiwan is excluded from this transformation due to its unique political dispute with China. This articler argues that the emerging security network in East Asia has an unintended consequence: It increases the risk of armed conflict in Taiwan Strait because the US will find it difficult to convince China that its allies will not be involved in Taiwan Strait. The conclusion suggest that the US and its allies can take several steps to credibly reassure China as the US strengthens relations with its security partners.
Keywords:Alliance politics, security network, cross-Strait relations, reassurance.

A Review of the cross-Strait Relations According to the Rise of the Chinese Community...

Roberto Ren-rang Chyou
Abstract: According to "A German Media Forecasts the next 30 year of China" a report which appeared in November 2016 in the internet, around the year 2033, surrounding the Chinese mainland, a Greater China region will be formed. It is expected that its total economy will be similar in size to that of the United States. It seems inevitable that by 2040, the Oriental world wealth will be more than the Western world’s, while the global GDP ranking after re-shuffling may be sorted as follows: 1. Greater China; 2. European Union; 3. North America (USA and Canada); 4. Japan; 5. Republic of Greater Korea; and, 6. India. Through the presentation of this argument, this article hopes to understand the process of China's rise, the Chinese community's future overall cooperation, as a way to approach the hegemonic competition between China and the United States, and the future of cross-Strait relations. Finally, from the angle of the trans-oceanic canal construction, some observations will also be made.
Keywords:Cross-Strait relations, rise of Chinese community, hegemonic competition, cross-Oceanic canal.


Jihadist Groups in the Sahel. An Etymological Analysis

Francesco Saverio Angió
Abstract:The names of the insurgent groups include historical, cultural, ethnic, territorial and doctrinal references that appear too specific to be considered accidental and thus could be indicative of their strategy. The examples of terrorist attacks carried out by these groups support this argument, as they adopted or changed their name beforehand, shortly before a spinoff group, a new alliance or an offshoot emerged, or when an attack occurred in a non-traditional geographic area of action. Unfortunately, too often mass media and government officials utilise incorrect and/or superficial translations of these names, thus contributing to a lack of detailed information on the jihadists. The etymological analysis of the Arabic names of the Sahelian jihadist insurgents intends to and contributes to increase the knowledge on the nature and actions of these groups.
Keywords: Jihadism, Mali, etymology, branding, counter-terrorism

Global Threat Landscape in 2018

Rohan Gunaratna
Abstract:The global terrorism threat has become decentralised, unpredictable, hard-to-detect and resilient with regenerative capacities. The global jihadist movements, principally the so-called Islamic State (IS) and Al-Qaeda, have glocalised to exploit indigenous grievances, recruit aspiring jihadists and fight for local and global causes. Overall, both IS and Al-Qaeda have become underground terror networks. In 2018, three trends are likely to define the global terrorism landscape: IS is transforming itself from a ‘caliphate’-building entity to a global terrorist movement; IS is decentralising, shifting its centre of gravity from Iraq and Syria to its multiple wilayat and divisions in different countries; Al-Qaeda affiliates in Syria will capitalise on the vacuum left by IS and exploit the fragile and unstable situation in post-IS Syria. In order to prevent IS’ re-emergence and losing the hard-fought victory, it is imperative that the international community address the underlying conditions that facilitated the rise of IS, Al-Qaeda and other militant groups in Iraq and Syria, the issues that give sustenance to other terrorist and militant groups, and support governments that lack capabilities to fight terrorism.
Keywords:Islamic State, Al-Qaeda, Iraq, Syria, global terrorism.


Military Recruitment Model for Armed Forces of Small States and Middle Powers

Jaroslav Usiak , Erik Gorner
Abstract:States have many functions. The core one should be keeping its sovereignty and territorial integrity. Diplomacy and international law cannot guarantee their security. An armed force is an inherent part of each state that wants to be truly independent. Small states and middle powers have more difficulties when recruiting manpower for the military service compared to the great powers. The aim of this article is to find out what kind of recruitment model is the most suitable for small states and middle powers, focusing on the example of European democratic states. The article concludes that the best military recruitment system is based on a strong link between armed forces and society. National defense education is also of high importance. Regular armed forces should be composed of highly trained professionals backed by reserves.
Keywords:Small states, middle powers, military recruitment, military conscription, all-volunteer force, armed forces, state.

Revisiting Europe´s Geopolitical Landscape after the Ukraine Crisis: America´s Balance of Power Strategy

Sotiris Serbos and Georgios Anastasiadis
Abstract.The unveiling of the economic crisis in Europe foregrounds the resurgence of geopolitics in transatlantic foreign policy analysis. With the EU project still at risk, a fragmented Europe allows Russia to gain ground and challenge the European power balance at large. We argue that the U.S. will seriously try to avert such a path and even loss of commitment towards further EU integration. In order to keep Europe united, we stress that the U.S. can exploit the Ukraine crisis by compelling Europe’s pivotal player (Germany) towards a European leadership fully committed to EU integration as its ideal option.
Keywords:U.S. foreign policy; European balance of power; Germany; Russia, European integration; Eurozone


Transformation in the Narrative of the Colombian Public Forces within the Framework of the...

Jerónimo Ríos
Abstract:The main purpose of this article is to analyze how the narratives within the Army and the Colombian National Police regarding the understanding of the Colombian internal armed conflict and its cessation have been transformed. While over the last decade a public policy of direct confrontation against the guerrillas that encouraged military victory prevailed as the only way to end the conflict. Presently, however, with the congressional passage of the Peace Agreement signed on November 24, 2016, between the FARC and the Government, the Colombian State Forces have incorporated new elements, horizons, and challenges that show strinking differences in how they conceive ending the conflict, as well as to ensure its stability over time
Keywords:Colombian Public Forces, Internal Armed Conflict, Peace Agreement, Negative Peace, Positive Peace