Antonio Marquina: Editor´s Note/Nota Editorial
Selected Bibliography/Bibliografía Seleccionada

Western Sahara, Kosovo, Terrorism, Indonesia

The Western Sahara conflict in the Algerian Moroccan relations

Lotfi Sour
Abstract:Algeria and Morocco have for centuries kept an uneasy relationship of conflict and doubt which shaped the Maghreb region history. In fact, both states shared the same borders but never shared same policies. This caused the relational gap at both governmental level and social grounds. As a result, the hostility and continuing tension has remained at top in their foreign policies for most of their mutual history. Consequently, the Western Sahara conflict has been undoubtedly an important driver of one of the most critical problems to have confronted the two countries in the course of their bilateral relations. This article will examine the impact of this conflict on the geopolitical landscape of the Maghreb region and its implications on the Maghreb’s regional security and integrity.
Key words: The Western Sahara conflict, Algeria, Morocco, regional hegemony.

The attitude of the international community to the October 1997 student protests in Kosovo,...

Arjan Janova, Oktaj Hasani
Abstract: During the administration of the former Yugoslavia, the Albanian population of Kosovo was denied the basic right to education. Albanian students, although they were numerically in the majority at the University of Pristina, did not even enjoy the basic rights to education in the Albanian language, despite the fact that this university was Albanian and was founded by Albanians more than 20 years ago. This situation pushed Albanians to organise themselves to defend their freedoms and rights, especially in the field of education. The student protests of October 1997, organised in a spirit of cooperation between students, civil society and teachers, became one of the many factors that brought the treatment of the Albanian people under Slobodan Milosevic's regime to the attention of the world.
Key words: Kosovo, Albanians, freedom, independence, aggression, Yugoslavia, human rights

What do terrorist think. Analizing the Bali bombers memoirs

Ali Muhammad, Ali Maksum
Abstract: This article tries to examine what terrorists think about their actions. Why did they do the violent action? What are inside their mind? How did they justify their violence? This article tries to answer the question by focusing on three main perpetrators of the Bali bombers 2002, i.e. Imam Samudra, Ali Ghufron and Ali Imron. Except Imron who was sentenced to life imprisonment, Samudra and Ghufron has been sentenced to death by Indonesian authority. The authors analyze their mind by reading the texts written by these three bombers and trying to understand and explain its context. This research reveals that the bombers had different understanding of the religious teachings. Samudra and Ghufron believe that their action is based on the true understanding and true depiction of implementation of jihad in Islam. Ali Imron, who previously had the similar believe, was repentant and believed that their action was based on unjustified interpretations of jihad teaching in Islam.
Key words: Terrorism, radicalism, Bali bombers, mind, memoirs, jihad.

The Indonesia-Australia partnership to counter radicalism and terrorism in Indonesia

Ali Maksum Hafidz Try Sjahputra
Abstract: Indonesia and Australia have always been helpful partners since Indonesian Independence in 1945. However, the relationship was worsened after Bali Bombings in 2002 and 2005 as well as Australian embassy bombing in 2004 that killed many Australians. Thus, using Australian perspective, this article attempts to examine the response of Australian government in dealing with terrorism problems in Indonesia as well as the feedback from Indonesia. The research reveals that given the fact that Australia has many interests in Indonesia added with the geographical proximity, it is naturally urged to resolve the terrorism issues in Indonesia. The study found out that Australia proposed some programs to Indonesia due to its domestic interest and international factors. At the same time, Indonesia was also the main beneficiary of Australian counter terrorism policy.
Key words: Indonesia, Australia, partnership, counter-terrorism, radicalism.

Indonesia´s interests in winning biodiesel disputes in the World Trade Organization

Mutia Hariati Hussin, M.Maulana Iberahim
Abstract:This article analyzes the Indonesia's interest in winning in a series of biodiesel disputes against the EU. These disputes formally entered the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) of the World Trade Organization in 2014 (DS480) and in 2019 (DS593). This article explores how Indonesia could defend its political-economic interest by providing the necessary evidence to the Panel. The logic of the neoliberal institutionalist framework, which does not believe in the harmony of interests, allows for an in-depth analysis of why Indonesia pursues institutional mechanisms within its litigation approach. This research argues that the WTO is perceived as the enabling factor to defend Indonesia's interest, where resource nationalism justifies the state's ability to play an increasingly complex and pervasive role that the private sectors could not otherwise have done. The legal procedures provided for in the WTO system are in line with Indonesia's interest in cooperation and conflict management.
Key words: Palm oil, biodiesel, WTO, DSB, European Union, Indonesia

Free Trade Agreement (FTA) through economic diplomacy strategy. Study of Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement...

Shanti Darmastuti, Arry Bainus, Widya Setiabudi, Dudy Heryadi
Abstract:Free trade is considered to make a positive contribution to both domestic and international economy because of the removal of trade barriers. The importance of free trade can be seen from the increasing free trade agreements between developed and developing countries. The involvement of developing countries in free trade agreements enables them to make efficiency and maximize the benefits of implementing free trade agreements. Developing countries however often do not get results that are as expected in the Free Trade Agreement (FTA). For example, Indonesia has not yet obtained the outcomes that were expected in the implementation of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA). The results highlight that one fundamental factor for obtaining optimal benefits from a trade agreement is internal coordination prior to the negotiation process.
Key words: Free trade agreement, Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, implementation, domestic coordination.

The United Nations mission in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration in Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

Sugito, Muhammad Zahrul Anam
Abstract: El presente artículo tiene por objeto analizar la actuación de la Unión Europea en relación con el conflicto entre Armenia y Azerbaiyán sobre Nagorno-Karabaj. Con este fin, el trabajo describe, en primer lugar, la evolución a grandes rasgos del conflicto. En segundo lugar, el artículo analiza el papel de la Unión Europea en el conflicto y las medidas que propone para contribuir a su resolución en el marco de la relación que la Unión mantiene con los dos Estados implicados en el mismo, con los que colabora a través de la Política de Vecindad y la Asociación Oriental. Finalmente, el trabajo presenta una serie de consideraciones a modo de conclusión en las que se destaca el papel que la Unión Europea puede desempeñar en el futuro en relación con este conflicto.
Key words:Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration, Timor Leste, United Nations, Security.

Global threat landscape 2022

Liu Chunlin, Rohan Gunaratna
Abstract: Three trends will characterise the evolving global terror threat landscape in 2022. First, the cascading implications of the return of the Taliban-al Qaeda alliance to Afghanistan on August 15, 2021. Second, the diffusion of the Islamic State threat from the Levant, notably from Iraqi-Syrian theatre. Third, the online surge of extremist and violent content especially of Islamist and Far Right entities on servers in North America and Europe mobilising and radicalizing especially youth. With lockdowns, partial lockdowns and other pandemic restrictions, the challenges facing government security forces - military, law enforcement and intelligence surged and both in resource allocation for training and mobility for operations hampered their performance and efficacy. The focus on humanitarian challenges by governments during the pandemic was ably exploited by threat groups to expand their support bases or capture territory. On the other hand, a range of ideological and material threats manifested in 2021. Some will institutionalise both in the physical and digital spaces in 2022. With radicalisation and reciprocal radicalisation of Islamists and Far Right threat groups, their networks, cells and personalities will stage attacks.
Key words: Afghanistan, Taliban, Al-Qaeda, Islamic State, Islamism, radicalisation, digital space